Cell NEWEST Vocabulary Words

Organelles - The smaller parts of the cell that; produce energy, build and transport materials, and store and recycle wastes.

Prokaryote - single celled organism that does NOT have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

Eukaryote - an organism made up of cells that contain their DNA in a nucleus.

Cell Wall - The rigid layer of material that surrounds the plant cell giving it strength and protection. Plant cell only.

Cell Membrane - The outside boundary of the animal cell, the part next to the cell wall in a plant. In both cells, it controls what enters and exits the cell. It is semi-permeable – lets some things through.

Nucleus - The control center of the cell that directs all of the cell activities. Genetic material is contained inside. Usually found in center of cell.

Nuclear Membrane - The outside boundary of the nucleus that controls what enters and exits the nucleus.

Chromatin - In the nucleus of the cell, the genetic blueprints that carry the directions to cell parts that tells them how to work. Genetic material made of DNA.

Chromosomes - Worm like structures made up of chromatin. These form when the cell is going to divide so that all of the genetic material is copied accurately.

Nucleolus - In the nucleus, the place where the ribosomes are made. A small sack.

Cytoplasm - The gel that is the material that organelles float in which is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

Mitochondria - Organelles that produce most of the energy for cells. There will be lots of mitochondria in animal cells – especially muscle cells. Respiration occurs in the mitochondria.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.) - Passageways that carry proteins, etc. from one place to another. Hollow tubular structures that travel around the cytoplasm.

Ribosome - Grain-like bodies that produce proteins. (look like little dots). Is often found on E.R. so proteins can be easily transported.

Golgi Complex (Bodies) - Flattened collection sacs and tubes in the E.R. that distribute proteins + release materials outside cell. Package proteins up in bubbles called vesicles so they can move through membrane. Vesicles also act as an address on an envelope so protein gets where it is supposed to go.

Chloroplasts - Organelles that capture sunlight and produce food through process of photosynthesis. Only found in plant cells. They contain chlorophyll, which is green.

Vacuoles - Round storage sacs for keeping water, food, or wastes. Plants have larger vacuoles which mainly store water, animal cells have smaller vacuoles.

Lysosomes - Round organelles containing chemicals to break down large food, old cell parts, and releases substances that can be used again by the cell. Not usually found in plant cells. How tadpoles lose tails when turning into frogs.

Photosynthesis - Chemical reaction that occurs in plant cells that converts sunlight, water and CO2 into sugar and oxygen.

Respiration - Chemical reaction that occurs in all cells. Happens in the mitochondria. Converts sugar and oxygen into energy and CO2.