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Constellations: A group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky that looks like a familiar object, animal or character.


Absolute magnitude: Is a measure of how much light a star gives off.


Apparent Magnitude: A measure of the amount of light received on Earth.


Light-year: The distance that light travels in one year.   (Light travels at approximately 669,600,000 miles per hour.  That's about 186,000 miles per second! WOW! About 10 times around the earth every second!


Photosphere: the lowest layer of the suns atmosphere and the layer from which light is given off


Chromosphere: layer of the suns atmosphere above the photosphere.


Corona: Outermost, largest layer of the suns atmosphere; extends millions of kilometers into space and has temperatures up to 2 million K.


Sunspots: Area of the suns surface


Nebula: A large cloud of gas and dust.


Giant: A star in a late stage of its life cycle.


White Dwarf: Late stage in the life cycle of a star. It is the smaller core of a giant that is left over.


Supergiant: Late stage in the cycle of a massive star, in which the core heats up, eventually explodes to form a supernova.


Neutron Star: A collapsed core of a supernova that can shrink to about 20 km. in diameter and contains only neutrons in the dense core.


Black Hole: Final Stage in the evolution of a very massive star, where the cores mass collapses to a point that its gravity is so strong that no light can escape.


Galaxy: Large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity; can be elliptical, spiral, or irregular.


Big Bang theory: States that about 13.7 billion years ago, the universe began with a huge, fiery explosion.



Modern Constellations: Modern astronomy divides the sky into 88 constellations, many of which were names by early astronomers.


Circumpolar Constellations: As Earth rotates, constellations in the northern sky circle around Polaris. They appear to move because Earth is in motion. The stars appear to complete one full circle in the sky in about 24 hours.


Parallax: The apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different positions.


Prominences: Huge, arching columns of gas caused by intense magnetic fields associated with sunspots.


Flares: Violent eruptions near sunspots that brighten suddenly and shoot outward at high speed.


Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): They occur when large amounts of electrically-charged gas are erected suddenly from the Sun’s corona. CMEs can occur 2-3 times a day during a sunspot maximum.


An extremely large group of many stars, planets, dust, gases, and other structures held together by gravity is a


A light year


Binary eclipse




The collapsed core of a supernova that contains only neutrons is a


Red shift

Neutron star







A group of galaxies is known as a __________.


Red shift

Big bang






The universe is always as it is right now

The universe is always changing




The first phase of a star (which is basically a cloud of dust and gas in space)


Northern lights

Meteor field

Magnetic field




VERY massive stars end their life as this. Its gravity is so powerful , not even light can escape it.




A black hole


Neutron star 


In which galaxy does OUR sun exist?


Arp’s galaxy

R2 Galaxy


Milky Way



Which is the closest star to Earth?

 The Sun

The Moon




In which of the following choices are the objects ordered from smallest to largest?


Universe, galaxy clusters, galaxies, stars
Universe, stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters
Stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, universe
Galaxy clusters, galaxies, stars, universe



How many years would it take for light to get to Earth if it was 3.7 light years away?


3,700,000 years

0.37 years

3.7 years

37 years




A group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky that looks like a familiar object, animal, or character is a/an



Black hole               





The apparent shift in position of an object when viewed from two different positions. This helps scientists determine how far away objects are. (HINT: Think of your thumb in front of your nose when you were closing one eye at a time).


Circumpolar constellations

Parallax shift


Prominence shift


This THEORY states that about 13.7 billion years ago, the universe began with a huge fiery explosion


Coronal theory

Big bang

False theory

Steady theory



The measure of how much light from a star is received on Earth.


Electrical watts

Chromosphere levels                   

Nebular shift

Apparent magnitude


Which is hotter, a white dwarf or a supergiant?


White dwarf           



Which is brighter, a supergiant or a giant?






OUR SUN (A MAIN SEQUENCE STAR) is:              


The brightest type of star

Average brightness and temperature for a star                  

The hottest temperature for a star

The very smallest type of star




Most stars are


Super giants

Main sequence stars


 Black holes



Our sun is a


Black dwarf

Main sequence star


White dwarf




In late stages of their lives, stars can expand to become





Giants or supergiants



The Milky Way is a/an _____________ galaxy.








This is a measure of how much light a star actually gives off



Apparent magnitude

Absolute magnitude

Element shift