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VARIOUS NOTES: ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, and ENERGY

Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 study guides, Energy Forms

Ion- A positively or negatively charged atom.

Static Charge- An imbalance of an electric charge on an object.

Electric Force- All objects exert a electric force on each other

Electric Field- Exists around every electric charge. Electric charges exert a force through an electric field.

Insulator- A material in which electrons can’t move easily from place to place.

Conductors-Contain electrons that can move more easily through a material.

Electric Discharge- The rapid movement of excess from one place to another.

Electric Current-Flow of electric charge.

Circuit- When electric charges flow excessively only through a closed conducting loop.

Voltage-How much electrical potential energy each electron can gain.

Resistance- The measure of how difficult it is for electrons to flow through a material.

Ohm’s law- He found a simple relationship among voltage, current, and resistance in a circuit. States the current through a conductor between 2 points is equal to the potential difference across the 2 points.

-voltage(in volts)=current(in amperes) x resistance(in ohms)

V=ir

Series circuit- A circuit that has only one path for electricity to follow

Parallel circuit- A circuit that has no more than one path for the electric current to follow

Electric power- The rate at which electric energy is converted into other forms of energy

Electric Power Equation- power (in watts)=current (in amperes)x voltage (in volts) P=IV

Chapter 23 STUDY GUIDE Magnetism

Magnetic Field - What a magnetic force is exerted from.

Magnet - A piece of magnetite that attracts objects made of iron or steel.

Magnetic Domain - Group of atoms with their fields pointing in the same direction.

Magnetosphere -The region of space affected by Earth’s magnetic field.

Electromagnet- A current carrying wire wrapped around an Iron core

Motor- Any device that converts electric energy to kinetic energy

Aurora- The light emitted causes a display

Generator-uses a magnetic field to turn motion into electricity

Alternating current- Electric current that changes its direction repeatedly

Direct Current- electrons change their direction of movement many times each second

Transformer- A device used to increase or decrease the voltage of an alternating current

Voltage- a measure of the amount of electrical potential energy an electron flowing in a circuit can gain; measured in volts

***What is a MAGNETIC FIELD?

A region of space near a magnet, electric current, or moving charged particle in which a magnetic force acts on any other magnet, electric current, or moving charged particle.

***If you have 2 magnetic field with OPPOSITE charges, would they ATTRACT or REPEL one another?

ATTRACT

***If you have 2 magnetic field with SIMILAR charges, would they ATTRACT or REPEL one another?

REPEL

***Is it possible for MAGNETIC FIELDS / MAGNETS to have POTENTIAL ENERGY? Explain

***They CAN possess potential energy which depends upon its orientation with respect to the magnetic field and how strong they are.

***Would the MAGNETIC FIELDS have more of an impact on one another if they were closer together, or further away from one another?

***The impact would be greater the closer together they are, and less impact the further away they are

***What is an ELECTRIC FIELD?

a region around a charged particle or object within which a

force would be exerted on other charged particles or objects

***What part of the ATOM does ELECTRICTY come from?

‘ELECTRON’ (negative charge) or ‘PROTON’ (positive charge)

***Does an ‘ELECTRICAL FIELD’ have a ‘CHARGE’? Can they attract or repel things? Please explain.‘ELECTRONS’ from an atom have negative chargeS.

*** ‘PROTONS’ ELECTRONS’ from an atom have positive charges.

***An electrical field can either have a negative charge or a positive charge, depending if it is made up of electrons or protons.

***If you moved the balloon further away from the stream of water, would it still have as much of an influence on it? ****IT WOULD HAVE LESS OF AN INFLUENCE THE FURTHER AWAY IT GOES

***Would ELECTRIC FIELDS in general have more of an impact on one another if they were closer together, or further away from one another?

Is it possible for ELECTRICITY to have POTENTIAL ENERGY? Explain

Electrical potential energy arises from any collection of charges that have the ‘potential’ to do work.

What would be a good definition of ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY?

***Electrical potential energy arises from any collection of charges

that have the ‘potential’ to do work.

***Is it possible for GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS / GRAVITY to have POTENTIAL ENERGY? Explain

Think of a roller coaster at the top of a hill.

The higher it is, the more potential energy

it has due to gravity.

***Gravitational potential energy is energy an object possesses because of its position in a gravitational field

***CHEMICAL ENERGY***

Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or, to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries and light bulbs and cells etc. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves energy, which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system.

You have chemical reactions in your body. When you eat food, it is digested. The food has chemical energy in it. The chemicals in your food help keep your body functioning.

Chemicals have POTENTIAL ENERGY! Most often, when a chemical system undergoes a reaction, it is MOST often THERMAL ENERGY.

INTERESTING FACTS: When wood burns, it is releasing energy that was stored up over years.

As a tree grows, it takes in sunlight and uses that energy to combine a liquid (water from the ground) and a gas (carbon dioxide from the air) to make the solid stuff of the tree: wood, bark, leaves, and so on. So energy from sunlight is stored in the wood.

We make wood burn by heating it until that solid stuff begins to break down again and release the stored energy. We see that energy as heat and light, which we call fire.

*** When a chemical system undergoes

A reaction, it is most often thermal

Energy. Other examples of this include:

(1) Cars burning gasoline

(2) Baking a cake (the baking soda)

(3) Digestion of food in our stomachs that give our body heat

(4) Rusting