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VARIOUS NOTES: ASTRONOMY AND PRACTICE TEST

CHAPTER 13 STUDY GUIDE

 

Constellations: A group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky that looks like a familiar object, animal or character.

 

Absolute magnitude: Is a measure of how much light a star gives off.

 

Apparent Magnitude: A measure of the amount of light received on Earth.

 

Light-year: The distance that light travels in one year.   (Light travels at approximately 669,600,000 miles per hour.  That's about 186,000 miles per second! WOW! About 10 times around the earth every second!

 

Photosphere: the lowest layer of the suns atmosphere and the layer from which light is given off

 

Chromosphere: layer of the suns atmosphere above the photosphere.

 

Corona: Outermost, largest layer of the suns atmosphere; extends millions of kilometers into space and has temperatures up to 2 million K.

 

Sunspots: Area of the suns surface

 

Nebula: A large cloud of gas and dust.

 

Giant: A star in a late stage of its life cycle.

 

White Dwarf: Late stage in the life cycle of a star. It is the smaller core of a giant that is left over.

 

Supergiant: Late stage in the cycle of a massive star, in which the core heats up, eventually explodes to form a supernova.

 

Neutron Star: A collapsed core of a supernova that can shrink to about 20 km. in diameter and contains only neutrons in the dense core.

 

Black Hole: Final Stage in the evolution of a very massive star, where the cores mass collapses to a point that its gravity is so strong that no light can escape.

 

Galaxy: Large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity; can be elliptical, spiral, or irregular.

 

Big Bang theory: States that about 13.7 billion years ago, the universe began with a huge, fiery explosion.

 

 

Modern Constellations: Modern astronomy divides the sky into 88 constellations, many of which were names by early astronomers.

 

Circumpolar Constellations: As Earth rotates, constellations in the northern sky circle around Polaris. They appear to move because Earth is in motion. The stars appear to complete one full circle in the sky in about 24 hours.

 

Parallax: The apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different positions.

 

Prominences: Huge, arching columns of gas caused by intense magnetic fields associated with sunspots.

 

Flares: Violent eruptions near sunspots that brighten suddenly and shoot outward at high speed.

 

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): They occur when large amounts of electrically-charged gas are erected suddenly from the Sun’s corona. CMEs can occur 2-3 times a day during a sunspot maximum.


 

An extremely large group of many stars, planets, dust, gases, and other structures held together by gravity is a

 

A light year

Constellation

Binary eclipse

Galaxy

 

 


The collapsed core of a supernova that contains only neutrons is a

 

Red shift

Neutron star

Sun

Planet

 

 

 

 

A group of galaxies is known as a __________.

 

Red shift

Big bang

Andromeda

Cluster


 

The ‘STEADY STATE THEORY’ says:

 

The universe is always as it is right now

The universe is always changing

 

 

 

The first phase of a star (which is basically a cloud of dust and gas in space)

 

Northern lights

Meteor field

Magnetic field

Nebula

 

 

VERY massive stars end their life as this. Its gravity is so powerful , not even light can escape it.

 

 

Giant

A black hole

Nebula                     

Neutron star 


             

In which galaxy does OUR sun exist?

 

Arp’s galaxy

R2 Galaxy

Andromeda

Milky Way

 

 

Which is the closest star to Earth?

 The Sun

The Moon

Betelgeuse

Sirius

 


In which of the following choices are the objects ordered from smallest to largest?

 

Universe, galaxy clusters, galaxies, stars
Universe, stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters
Stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, universe
Galaxy clusters, galaxies, stars, universe

 

 

How many years would it take for light to get to Earth if it was 3.7 light years away?

 

3,700,000 years

0.37 years

3.7 years

37 years

 

 

 

A group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky that looks like a familiar object, animal, or character is a/an

 

Constellation

Black hole               

Protostar     

Phosphere

 

 

The apparent shift in position of an object when viewed from two different positions. This helps scientists determine how far away objects are. (HINT: Think of your thumb in front of your nose when you were closing one eye at a time).

 

Circumpolar constellations

Parallax shift

Flares

Prominence shift

 



This THEORY states that about 13.7 billion years ago, the universe began with a huge fiery explosion

 

Coronal theory

Big bang

False theory

Steady theory

 

 


The measure of how much light from a star is received on Earth.

 

Electrical watts

Chromosphere levels                   

Nebular shift

Apparent magnitude

 

  
Which is hotter, a white dwarf or a supergiant?

 
Supergiant

White dwarf           

 

 

Which is brighter, a supergiant or a giant?

 

Supergiant 

Giant            

 

           

OUR SUN (A MAIN SEQUENCE STAR) is:              

 

The brightest type of star

Average brightness and temperature for a star                  

The hottest temperature for a star

The very smallest type of star

           

 

        

Most stars are

 

Super giants

Main sequence stars

Giants

 Black holes

               

 


Our sun is a

 

Black dwarf

Main sequence star

Giant

White dwarf

 

 

 

In late stages of their lives, stars can expand to become

 

Asteroids

Elliptical

Galaxies

Giants or supergiants

 

 

The Milky Way is a/an _____________ galaxy.

 

Elliptical

Irregular

Spiral

 

 

 

This is a measure of how much light a star actually gives off

 

 

Apparent magnitude

Absolute magnitude

Element shift